Climate change – Impacts on marine life and processes

Status: There are many unknowns about the magnitude and impacts of climate change

Many activities we, as humans, now consider essential to modern, everyday, life release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Climate change does occur naturally, however, as a result of increased greenhouse gases released from our activities, the ‘greenhouse effect’ is causing climate change to progress at an unnaturally fast rate. The rise in global temperatures seen as a result has a huge impact, with sea temperatures rising, and sea level rising (see Sea Level Rising and Coastal Flooding Section). Although there is still an overall warming trend, it is worth noting that there are vast differences in the range of sea surface temperature seen around the UK and decreases in temperature are recorded some years.

Even very small changes in the temperature can have significant impacts on marine life and processes, some of which remain unknown, but some of which are discussed in this section.

Some marine species will be able to adapt to climate change, depending on the severity of habitat change and their movability or adaptability. The Solway is home to an abundance of habitats and species both on the coast and in the marine environment which will no doubt change in the future as a result of climate change.


Image; Scotland’s National Marine Plan Interactive, with layers (links will provide usage licence, data provider, etc); Solway Region (mask)© Crown Copyright, All rights reserved, and ‘UKCP09 Projections – Change in sea surface temperature (ºC) by 2085, compared to 1975, medium emissions scenario – autumn‘ © Crown Copyright 2009. The UK Climate Projections (UKCP09) have been made available by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) under licence from the Met Office, UKCIP, British Atmospheric Data Centre, Newcastle University, University of East Anglia, Environment Agency, Tyndall Centre and Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory. These organisations give no warranties, express or implied, as to the accuracy of the UKCP09 and do not accept any liability for loss or damage, which may arise from reliance upon the UKCP09 and any use of the UKCP09 is undertaken entirely at the users risk.

Climate change – Impacts on marine life and processes

Climate change

Climate change is currently having an effect on the sea and marine ecosystems therein as a result of ocean acidification, rises in sea surface temperature, and other climate change impacts such as sea level rise. The fragility of some marine ecosystems and the biodiversity which exists therein is evident through the vast knock-on effects which climate change can have.

Marine impacts of climate change include;

  • Sea level Rise
  • Water and Air temperature rise
  • Ocean Acidification
  • Dissolved oxygen concentration reduction
  • Reductions in salinity
  • Changes in stratification
  • Changes in ocean currents (the North Atlantic Drift is weakening)
  • Increase in storminess and waves

These changes can create changes in species distribution, erosion, habitats in all water depths. Socio-economic harm will also be felt through the ongoing changes of a warming climate, with marine sectors being negatively impacted by these changes. Shellfish stocks could fall victim to ocean acidification damaging their calcium carbonate exoskeletons. This could cause problems for the shellfish reliant aquaculture, fishing, and processing industries. Coastal heritage and culture could be lost or damaged through increased erosion, flooding, and storminess which could also negatively impact on coastal tourism.

Climate change impacts can be extensive and can effect a variety of marine wildlife and processes, including non-native species, seabirds, and carbon sinks (as discussed below).

The severity of climate change impacts will increase depending on the level of emissions which continue to be released into the environment. This is why there are several emissions scenarios discussed and available when exploring the potential impacts of climate change. These scenarios are very important for highlighting the ongoing need to reduce emissions, allowing people to see the impact lowering emissions will have on slowing/reducing climate change impacts, and conversely the increasing speed/severity of negative impacts which will be seen if emissions are not reduced, or are increased. As part of the MET office Hadley Centre Climate Programme, an analysis tool has been created to project the potential future scenarios which can be foreseen as a result of low, medium, and high emissions release. This data can be used to assess risks of climate change for future planning, and was originally created in 2009, being updated in 2018 with emissions scenarios projected up until the year 2100. 

Due to the mounting issue of climate change many countries are actively seeking to reduce their emissions, by setting ambitious targets. Scotland has established binding targets through the Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009, targeting to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by the year 2050, with an interim target set for 2020 of 42% as compared to the CO2 levels of emissions seen in 1990. The Climate Change Act 2008 seeks the same 2050 target of an 80% reduction for England, however does not include an interim target reduction.


Image; Criffel across the Nith. © G. Reid/ Solway Firth Partnership

Climate change – Impacts on marine life and processes

Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership

The Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership (MCCIP) is an organisation which focus’ on climate change impacts to coastal and marine environments, seeking to provide information to support effective management and adaptation. Regular MCCIP report cards summarise ‘current headlines‘ in the realm of marine impacts of climate change.

In 2017 the MCCIP published a 10 year report card which reflected on the first MCCIP report card published in 2006 and the evolution of climate change understanding.

MCCIP 2017 report card key headlines:

  • Short-term variations in temperature over the past decade highlight the need to communicate changes in long-term trends
  • There is evidence of some marine species responding to climate change
  • Some areas, such as human health, remain poorly understood but there are early signs that climate change will have an impact
  • Marine climate change impacts on society have been identified and understanding for some topics such as fisheries and coastal flooding are more advanced than others
  • Generally, marine climate change impacts have been better studied than ever before
    (Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership, 2017)

In 2015, the MCCIP published a special report card which focussed on climate change for marine biodiversity legislation implementation implications. It focussed specifically on the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and marine protected area (MPA) legislation. As well as the consideration that climate change may impact the achievement of the MSFD goal of Good Environmental Status (further work is required to assess this) and other key findings, the report concludes that ‘climate change is rarely explicitly considered in marine biodiversity legislation, but mechanisms generally exist that could enable climate change issues to be addressed.’ (Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership, 2015)

This same report also points out that as a result of changing conditions climate change may cause protected areas to lose their protected status or lead to new sites being designated. Changes in the climate may impact species distribution, habitats and ecosystems. For example, ‘honeycomb worm reef’ is a designated feature in the Cumbria Coast Marine Conservation Zone but it can be susceptible to temperature changes and acidification. Flexibility will be required in the Solway to respond to changes, by abandoning sites, designating new sites, and revising management measures.

In 2020 the MCCIP released a new Report Card on the impacts of climate change on UK coasts and seas. The report card summarises the effects climate change has had, and may have, on marine life and processes and society. Potential future changes as a result of climate change include; warming sea temperature, reduction in dissolved oxygen concentrations in our seas, continuing northward shift of the geographical distribution of plankton production, as well as damage to coastal and intertidal habitats through primary responses such as ocean acidification, sea level rise and erosion. Effects of climate change are vast, with many secondary impacts potentially resulting from a single primary impact. Explore the Report Card for more climate change impacts and potential future impacts including societal impacts of climate change on industries such as fishing, cultural heritage and tourism. Each Report Card section is underpinned by a scientific review, which are all available, in addition to the Report Card here.


Image; MCCIP Logo © Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership Logo

Climate change – Impacts on marine life and processes

Non-native Species (NNS)

Climate change can assist some invasive non-native species (INNS) by providing them with warmer, more hospitable environments for establishing and spreading. Changes in water temperatures could also decrease native species resilience, while becoming more hospitable for INNS, allowing the NNS to out compete native species and become invasive INNS. Non-native species only become ‘invasive’ when they thrive to the point they cause harm, be it environmental, economic, or social harm. Considering a non-native species ‘invasive’ is location and species dependant.

MCCIP 2017 Report Card

In 2006 the MCCIP reported that the rises in sea temperature around the UK were assisting in some NNS becoming established.

By 2017 the range of NNS which were already established had grown. Ballast water transportation and importation, either accidentally or on purpose, are common examples of how NNS are introduced into our waters (see Marine Invasive Non-Native Species section). Therefore, although sea surface temperature may be a factor in assisting establishment and growth of NNS, it is not the reason for their introduction in itself.

It is worth noting that the UK has many mechanisms for attempting to reduce the effect of NNS on habitats, and limit the impact climate change will have on NNS, for example the Invasive Non-Native Species Framework Strategy for GB (see Marine Invasive Non-Native Species section).


Image; Green Sea Fingers. © Solway Firth Partnership

Climate change – Impacts on marine life and processes

Seabirds and waterbirds

See the Birds section of the Solway Review for more information on Solway bird species. Climate change effects on the marine environment are reflected in changes to seabirds, which can be directly (for example bad weather interfering with nesting) or indirectly (for example changes in the distribution of food) effected by climate change.

The cycles, habitats, and locations of seabird prey are changing with the climate, and seabirds can struggle to adapt to the changes.

MCCIP 2017 Report Card

In 2006 the MCCIP reported that changes in prey distributions, as well as warmer winters were negatively impacting the breeding, survival and population of kittiwakes, among other species. Furthermore, the report suggested the future would see the continued decline in seabird populations as well as rises in sea level impacting shore nesting birds, and storminess impacting cliff-nesting birds.

In the 2017 report card it is presented that the productivity of several species of seabirds decreases as temperature increases (including; fulmars, Atlantic puffins, common terns, Arctic terns, little terns, and kittiwakes). In addition to longer term weather shifts impacting seabirds, some species’ breeding performance (particularly razorbills) is being negatively impacted by short term weather events such as summer storms.

Furthermore, some species will continue to progressively shift northwards with suitable habitats and prey. This could mean that species will become extinct or rare in the UK, such as Leach’s storm petrel, great suka and Arctic suka.

Finally, this report clarifies that climate change and its interaction with other factors leaves the fate of seabirds in the UK uncertain.

In terms of waterbirds, there could be increases in the abundance of certain species with the progressively changing climate. However, this positive boost to some populations is countered by the decline in other populations. ”

Overall, however, “coastal sites within the SPA network are often designated for their importance
for many non-breeding waterbird species, most are likely to continue to meet designation criteria as species numbers change in response to climate change… under a medium emissions scenario, six non-breeding waterbird species were regarded as high risk from climate change; 14 species at medium risk and 21 species were projected to benefit. There is generally high uncertainty at the species level, but Little Egret, Sanderling and Avocet are likely beneficiaries. However, projected changes in sea level that could impact coastal habitat quality and extent has not yet been incorporated into vulnerability assessments. At the population level, it is also feared that potentially positive impacts of milder winters may be negated by projected negative climate change impacts on breeding success” (Frost, et al. 2020).


Image; Barnacle geese in flight over water. © Solway Firth Partnership. Photographer; K. Kirk

Climate change – Impacts on marine life and processes

Intertidal species and habitats

Intertidal species and habitats covers the area which is both marine and land, being covered by water at high tide but exposed as land when the tide is low. This habitat produces a unique ecosystem, which is at risk from the impacts of climate change.

The impacts of climate change and severity of these impacts on habitats is highly dependent on variables such as sediment delivery, wave height and direction, storm events, in addition to sea-level rise. Much of the discussion below is explored in more detail in, and has been summarised from the Dumfries and Galloway Shoreline Management Plan (HR Wallingford Limited, 2005). This plan provides an overview of how climate change impacts may effect the beaches of Dumfries and Galloway.

The response of saltmarshes and mudflats (see Intertidal rock, sediments and biodiversity for more information on these habitats) is largely dependent upon sediment delivery rates. In the past, sediment delivery rate was sufficient to keep pace with water level rise, though it seems saltmarsh becomes more restricted as mudflats expand. If a similar pattern of present sedimentation and erosion continues then inner embayments will continue to be characterised by expanding saltmarshes, with erosion of the marsh front, due to more frequent water inundation through wave action and the inability of plant recovery, and sand/mudflats in the outer embayments.  

Evidence also suggests that erosion and loss of saltmarsh links to increases in wave energy. This may become a problem if increased wind and water levels result in larger waves interacting with the marsh for a longer period of the tidal cycle. Greater threats are changes in river flows that can affect the location of river channels. 

According to the 2005 Shoreline Management Plan in Dumfries and Galloway, sea level rise alone is not expected to significantly reduce saltmarsh habitat in the inner Solway, given the abundance of sediment available. There is more concern that increases in water level could increase wave action over ‘a longer period of the tidal cycle’ which could lead to erosion of saltmarshes and ‘changes in river flows that can effect the location of the river channels’ (HR Wallingford Limited, 2005).

Sandy and gravel (see Intertidal rock, sediments and biodiversity for more information on these habitats) beaches may be at risk of changes in orientation as a result of changes in wave direction. Wave direction may change as a result of shifting wind patterns, and should this happen it ‘will bring about changes in the longshore movement of sand and gravel…with some areas accumulating sediment while other areas of the coastline will lose beach material and erode… Increased erosion of the coast may be a greater concern in the western part of Dumfries and Galloway, where little of the coastal strip is low-lying, than any increase in flooding due to sea level rise’ (HR Wallingford Limited, 2005). This is only one potential way in which sandy and gravel habitats may respond to sea-level rise. The changes that the coast will see are dependent on variables such as time, level rise, wave height, wave direction, sediment transport, and others. Most of the bay-headed beaches are considered to be relatively stable as material is removed during storms returns in summer.

Where platforms and cliffs front the coastline, increased wave energy and higher sea levels may stimulate further erosion. The rocky shorelines are unlikely to be drastically altered as a result of rising sea levels and coastal flooding. However, the thin veneer of shingle systems are backed by raised beaches and it is likely these will start to erode.

Any increase in extreme water level may have a significant impact on flooding at the heads of the main bays. Much of the land is low-lying with flood embankments as protection. Where these defences are already overtopped during the highest tides (or where there are no defences), then more frequent flooding will result as mean sea levels (and tidal levels) increase.

Higher tidal levels will impede river outflow. This ‘backwater’ could increase flooding severity further up rivers, as already occurs in the Nith and Annan.

Changes to intertidal habitats brought about through climate change may exacerbate coastal flooding by reducing the natural flood defence capabilities of these environments. For more information on coastal flooding see; Climate change – Sea level rise and coastal flooding.

MCCIP 2017 Report Card

The 2006 MCCIP report card stated that since the mid 1980’s, as the sea surface temperature was rising, so too was the abundance of southern warm water species. At the same time northern, cold-watered species were declining. The 2006 report also stated that as sea surface temperature rise continues, these changes will continue.

The 2017 report, however, concluded that major intertidal rocky shore species distribution shifts over the last 50 years primarily occurred before the year 2000. Since 2000 there have been no changes in the range of intertidal rocky shore species. This lack of change is consistent with the overall UK sea surface temperature having very limited change between 2000 and 2015.


Image; Scotland’s National Marine Plan Interactive, with layers (links will provide usage licence, data provider, etc); Solway Region (mask)© Crown Copyright, All rights reserved, and ‘SRTMN – Predictions of maximum daily river temperatures for the hottest day between July 2015 and June 2016 (hidden when zoomed in past 1:5,000)’ Based on digital spatial data licensed from the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, © NERC (CEH) Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown copyright and database right [2020]

Climate change – Impacts on marine life and processes

Impacts of Climate Change on Society

Marine and coastal resources are relied upon to provide us with ecosystem services (benefits provided to humans through a healthy and functioning ecosystem). These ecosystem services have been relied upon around the Solway Firth estuary for many years utilising the Solway ecosystem for socio-economic purposes.

Climate change has the potential to significantly interfere with the enjoyment of the Solway Firth and the ecosystem services delivered by impacting the marine life and processes which deliver these benefits.

The 2020 MCCIP Report Card looks at the impacts of climate change on the following industries; fisheries, aquaculture, human health and harmful species, coastal flooding, transport and infrastructure, tourism and recreation, and cultural heritage.

All of these sectors, or interests, are important to the Solway Firth which raises concerns over the future reliance on these sectors in light of ongoing climate change. Ocean acidification, to draw attention to one example, may cause reductions in Solway shellfish fisheries catch or negatively impact on Loch Ryan oysters.


Image; Powfoot Defence. © Solway Firth Partnership.

Climate change – Impacts on marine life and processes

Carbon sinks

Carbon is released through a variety of natural and unnatural sources, however, carbon sinks are natural features which can absorb more carbon than they produce. Although there are terrestrial carbon sinks which are well documented and widely discussed, marine environments are also carbon sinks. In addition to storing more carbon than produced, marine environments also contribute to carbon sequestration, which is the long term removal and storage of carbon from the Earths atmosphere. Marine environments can remove and store carbon in materials both living and non-living. The stocks of carbon stored in marine and coastal ecosystems is referred to as ‘Blue carbon’.

The ocean is not the only carbon sink which can be found in the marine environment. Other examples vary in their capability to remove and store carbon. Examples of blue carbon stores include;

  • Coastal and offshore sediments
  • Shells 
  • Phytoplankton (microscopic algae)
  • Coastal plants (mainly kelp)
  • Saltmarsh (Burgh-by-Sands, Rockcliffe Marsh, Annan Merse)
  • Bivalve beds (Blue mussel beds, Oyster beds -such as Loch Ryan Oyster Aquaculture, Cockle beds)
  • Seagrasses 
  • Maerl beds and cold-water reefs (Luce Bay and Sands SAC)
  • Sea lochs (Loch Ryan)

All of these habitats are present within the boundaries of the Solway Firth in different areas and densities. Some habitats which capture and then store carbon have been increasingly studied, such as saltmarsh and seagrass habitats, for some habitats, however, there continues to be limited understanding.

Many of the key habitats and species important for blue carbon have been designated as Priority Marine Features in Scotland, UK Biodiversity Action Plan Species and Habitats, or receive protection from designated areas. Marine planning allows general protection by policies to these species and habitats. Furthermore, developers are required to consider climate change mitigation and adaptation.

Despite their current ability to remove and store carbon climate change can limit the success of marine carbon sinks. Marine carbon sinks can be negatively effected by climate change as a result of ocean acidification and rising sea temperature. However, it is worth noting that ocean acidification could also benefit some aspects of blue carbon stores in marine environment such as seaweed growth while harming other blue carbon stores. A NatureScot report states that; ‘[a]s atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) continues to increase, the capacity for the ocean to absorb this excess decreases, impacting on the global carbon cycle and, ultimately, marine carbon sequestration. …Thus as the ocean absorbs more carbon due to rising CO2, its ability to take up further extra CO2 is reduced’ (Burrows et al, 2017).

Several threats exist which threaten these marine environments and their ability to maximise carbon sequestration.

Coastal erosion, from increased sea level or otherwise, and other actions which may impact the light provided to shallow water plants storing carbon, limits their ability to photosynthesise and in turn store carbon.

Furthermore, stored carbon can be released through disturbance of sediments, through natural or human disturbance. Marine or coastal developments are one method by which disturbance, or even destruction of habitat, is likely and may release stored carbon, or damage materials ability to store carbon. Burrows et al (2017) explored 48 inshore MPAs and Special Areas of Conservation (SACs). Two of these SACs are located within the Solway Firth; Solway Firth and Luce Bay and Sands. This report looked at biological (Solway Firth SAC; Intertidal macroalgae & Modiolus modiolus bed. Luce Bay and Sands SAC; Brittlestar beds, Intertidal macroalgae, Kelp beds,Maerl beds, Mytilus beds, Sabellaria reefs, & Subcanopy algae) and geographical (eg gravel, sand, mud) blue carbon sinks to assess inshore MPA contributions to carbon capture and storage. Luce Bay and the Solway Firth SACs were two of the three most important geological blue carbon, sediment, stores of those studied. Detailed analyses of both the biological and geological carbon standing stock, sequestration, and production is also given for each MPA studied (page 156 – Luce Bay and Sands SAC, page 212 – Solway Firth SAC).

Maintaining and protecting habitats which store blue carbon can help contribute towards the English and Scottish climate change targets in addition to delivering other benefits. Scottish Wildlife Trust suggests that other benefits to protecting these habitats may include; ‘enhanced biodiversity, nursery grounds for juvenile fish and shellfish (including commercially important species), water quality regulation, improved seafloor integrity, and ecosystem stability – all of which will contribute towards the Marine Strategy Framework Directive’s goal of Good Environmental Status.’ (Scottish Wildlife Trust, 2016)

The Solway has the potential to store vast amounts of carbon, and even more if coastal and intertidal environments such as saltmarshes or peat bogs. Research is currently being undertaken through the C-SIDE Project to create a saltmarsh map for the UK to show carbon storage in these habitats. This study is looking at carbon storage and accretion rates to help manage intertidal areas of saltmarsh. This included taking samples of the vegetation which grows in each saltmarsh to measure carbon storage. The Solway has several saltmarshes which will be featured in this research. As some Solway salt marshes are expanding there could be an increase in carbon storage along the coast.

The value of inshore habitats for carbon storage and sequestration is vast, and there is ongoing research focussed on carbon storage in high value habitats in the UK such as oyster beds, seagrass meadows, and saltmarshes. The storage of blue carbon within biological and geological (sediments, mud, rock) resources of inshore marine protected areas, including Solway Firth Special Area of Conservation (SAC) and Luce Bay and Sands SAC are explored in a 2017 report from NatureScot (available here).


Image; Burgh by Sands saltmarsh during a CSIDE saltmarsh survey. © Solway Firth Partnership.

Climate change – Impacts on marine life and processes

Climate Change Risk Assessment

In 2017 the most recent Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) document was published (the next CCRA is due in 2022), and is required every 5 years under the Climate Change Act 2008. This is a policy paper which is created on the basis of an evidence report commissioned by the government, and is prepared by the Adaptation sub-committee of the Committee on Climate Change (CCC). As part of their evidence report, the CCC also publishes summaries for each of the 4 jurisdictions of the UK. 

In preparation of this document the Adaptation sub-committee of the CCC was asked to consider what the priorities should be for the UK National Adaptation Programme and the third strategy for climate adaptation reporting, and devolved adaptation programmes, such as the Scottish Climate Change Adaptation Programme 2019-2024 (currently in draft form).

The 4 jurisdictional summaries utilise tables to present Risks/opportunities identified related to climate change, the urgency of action required, and the geographical scope of that action, before discussing each in detail. These urgency scores are; More action needed; Research priority; sustain current action; and, watching brief.

For example, the natural environment risk; ‘Risks to aquifers, agricultural land and freshwater habitats from saltwater intrusion’ has been given an urgency score of ‘Sustain current action’ for England and Wales, and the urgency score of ‘Watching Brief’ for Northern Ireland and Scotland. Whereas other risks, such as the natural environment risk of; ‘Risks to species and habitats due to inability to respond to changing climatic conditions’ has a UK-wide urgency score of ‘More action needed’.

The summary tables with each risk, and each urgency score are the same in all of the summaries, apart from the explanatory column, which describes the urgency for that specific jurisdiction if it differs from others. 

The risks most relevant to the current chapter are found in the ‘natural environment and natural assets’ section of the summaries. The most relevant risks to climate change impacts on marine life and processes include;

Risk UK Wide urgency score
Risks to species unable to respond to changing conditions More Action Needed
Risks to natural carbon stores and sequestration More Action Needed
Risks to wildlife from invasive species Sustain Current Action 
Risks to wildlife in light of more frequent and intense weather conditions Sustain Current Action
Risks to the coastal zone in light of sea level rise More Action Needed
Risks to (and opportunities for) marine species from ocean acidification and rising temperatures Research Priority

Source; ASC (2016)

There are a total of 14 natural environment and asset risks of varying urgency  listed within the CCRA. Those listed above and throughout this chapter are explained in more detail in specific sections within the summary reports. These sections reiterate many of the points raised in the MCCIP 2017 Report Card.


Image; Powillimount Beach. © G. Reid/ Solway Firth Partnership

Climate change – Impacts on marine life and processes


ASC (2016). UK Climate Change Risk Assessment 2017 Evidence Report – Summary for England. Adaptation Sub-Committee of the Committee on Climate Change, London. Available here. (Accessed: 14.05.18)

Baxter, J.M., Boyd, I.L., Cox, M., Donald, A.E., Malcolm, S.J., Miles, H., Miller, B., Moffat, C.F., (Editors), (2011). Scotland’s Marine Atlas: Information for the national marine plan. Marine Scotland, Edinburgh. pp 191. Available here. (Accessed 22.07.19)

Burrows M.T., Kamenos N.A., Hughes D.J., Stahl H., Howe J.A. & Tett P. (2014). Assessment of carbon budgets and potential blue carbon stores in Scotland’s coastal and marine environment. NatureScot Commissioned Report No. 761. Available here. (Accessed: 18.04.19)

Burrows, M.T. (2017). Intertidal species and habitat. MCCIP Science Review 201. pp. 62-72, doi:10.14465/2017.arc10.006-ish. Available here. (Accessed: 12.04.19)

Cottier-Cook, E.J., Beveridge, C., Bishop, J.D.D., Brodie, J., Clark, P.F., Epstein, G., Jenkins, S.R., Johns, D.G., Loxton, J., MacLeod, A., Maggs, C., Minchin, D., Mineur, F. , Sewell, J. and Wood, C.A. (2017). Non-native species. MCCIP Science Review 2017. pp. 47-61, doi:10.14465/2017.arc10.005-nns. Available here. (Accessed: 11.04.19)

Daunt, F., Mitchell, I. and Frederiksen, M. (2017). Seabirds, MCCIP Science Review 2017, pp. 42-46, doi:10.14465/2017.arc10.004-seb. Available here. (Accessed: 07.08.19)

Secretariat, G. N. N. S. (2015). The Great Britain invasive non-native species strategy. Defra, London. Available here. (Accessed: 07.08.19)

Elliot, P. (2006). Impacts of Climate Change on Non-Native Species in Marine Climate Change Impacts Annual Report Card 2006 (Eds. Buckley, P.J, Dye, S.R. and Baxter, J.M), Online Summary Reports, MCCIP, Lowestoft. Available here. (Accessed: 04.04.19)

Frederiksen, M. (2006). Impacts of Climate Change on Seabirds in Marine Climate Change Impacts Annual Report Card 2006 (Eds. Buckley, P.J, Dye, S.R. and Baxter, J.M), Online Summary Reports, MCCIP, Lowestoft. Available here. (Accessed: 04.04.19)

International Union for Conservation of Nature (2017). Issues Brief, Invasive Alien Species and Climate Change. Available here. (Accessed: 11.04.19)

Land Use Consultants (2011). An assessment of the impacts of climate change on Scottish landscapes and their contribution to quality of life: Phase 1 – Final report. NatureScot Commissioned Report No. 488. Available here. (Accessed: 07.08.19)

Marine Management Organisation. (n.d.). Marine Planning Evidence Base. Available here. (Accessed: 14.05.18)

Marine Scotland (2018). Blue Carbon. Topic Sheet number 64. Available here. (Accessed: 17.04.19)

Marine Scotland (n.d.). National Marine Plan Interactive. Available here. (Accessed: 06.08.19)

Met Office (n.d.). UKCP18 Headline Findings. Available here. (Accessed: 10.04.2019)

Mills, F., Sheridan, S. and Brown S., (2017). Clyde Marine Region Assessment. Clyde Marine Planning Partnership. pp 231, Available here. (Accessed: 14.05.18)

UK National Ecosystem Assessment (2011). The UK National Ecosystem Assessment Technical Report. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge. Available here. (Accessed: 25.06.19)

Solway Firth Partnership (1996). The Solway Firth Review, Solway Firth Partnership, Dumfries. Available here. (Accessed: 23.07.19)

Solway Firth Partnership (2017). Marine Invasive Non-Native Species Biosecurity Plan for the Solway Firth 2018-2021. Available here. (Accessed: 07.08.19)

Ratcliffe, N (n.d.). RSPB Birds in Danger, The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Available here. (Accessed: 11.04.2019)


In-Text References;

ASC (2016). UK Climate Change Risk Assessment 2017 Evidence Report – Summary for Scotland. Adaptation Sub-Committee of the Committee on Climate Change, London. Available here. (Accessed: 14.05.18)

Burrows, M.T., Hughes, D.J., Austin, W.E.N., Smeaton, C., Hicks, N., Howe, J.A., Allen, C., Taylor, P. & Vare, L.L. (2017). Assessment of Blue Carbon Resources in Scotland’s Inshore Marine Protected Area Network. NatureScot Commissioned Report No. 957. Available here. (Accessed: 18.04.19)

Frost, T.M., Calbrade, N.A., Birtles, G.A., Mellan, H.J., Hall, C., Robinson, A.E., Wotton, S.R., Balmer, D.E. and Austin, G.E. (2020). Waterbirds in the UK 2018/19: The annual Report of The Wetland Bird Survey. BTO/RSPB/JNCC. Thetford. Available here. (Accessed: 20.10. 20)

HR Wallingford Limited (2005). Dumfries and Galloway Shoreline Management Plan, Study: Stage 1, Volume 1, Report EX 4963 Rev 2.0. Available here. (Accessed 22.07.19)

Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership (2020). Report Card 2020. Available here. (Accessed: 07.02.21)

Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership (2017). Marine Climate Change Impacts: 10 years’ experience of science to policy reporting. (Eds. Frost M, Baxter J, Buckley P, Dye S and Stoker B) Summary Report, MCCIP, Lowestoft, 12pp. Available here. (Accessed: 07.08.19)

Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership (2015). Marine climate change impacts: implications for the implementation of marine biodiversity legislation. (Eds. Frost M, Bayliss-Brown G, Buckley P, Cox M, Stoker, B and Withers Harvey N) Summary Report, MCCIP, Lowestoft, 16pp. Available here. (Accessed: 04.04.19)

Mills, F., Sheridan, S. and Brown S., (2017). Clyde Marine Region Assessment. Clyde Marine Planning Partnership. pp 231, Available here. (Accessed: 14.05.18).

Scottish Wildlife Trust (2016). Scottish Wildlife Trust Briefing – Blue Carbon. Available here. (Accessed: 25.06.19)


Image; Saltmarsh at Bowness-on-Solway. © Solway Firth Partnership